A survey of the chemical element germanium

A vial containing the black allotrope of antimony Native antimony with oxidation products Crystal structure common to Sb, AsSb and gray As Antimony is a member of group 15 of the periodic table, one of the elements called pnictogensand has an electronegativity of 2. In accordance with periodic trends, it is more electronegative than tin or bismuthand less electronegative than tellurium or arsenic. Antimony is stable in air at room temperature, but reacts with oxygen if heated to produce antimony trioxideSb2O3.

A survey of the chemical element germanium

Chemistry in its element: End promo Chris Smith Hello! Welcome to Chemistry in its element. This week, we're demystifying the element behind the photograph and to cross your cognitive palm with silver, here's Victoria Gill.

Geochemical distribution of the elements

Victoria Gill Its lustre shine has been coveted since ancient times. It's not just rare or precious, as its more expensive cousin, gold, but there is evidence from as early as BC that humans extracted silver from naturally occurring silver sulphide deposits in rocks to make coins and jewellery.

These coins actually form the basis for the economies of some ancient Mediterranean civilizations. It's a soft and pliable metal with a relatively low melting point and that means it can be hammered and moulded into shape, so the same metal that was used to make money that was gradually outdated could also be transformed into vases, platters, cutlery and goblets; tableware that has created displays of household wealth through the centuries.

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But a gleaming collection of silverware isn't easy to maintain. The metal reacts with sulphur in the air, rapidly forming a dull, dark silver sulphide tarnish that has to be polished off. So it's a high maintenance element; another reason why it has always been outshone by gold.

But the same chemical properties that tarnished its image let it to make another mark in history, by allowing history itself to be recorded in the photograph. Ina German physicist called Johann Heinrich Schulze found that a paste of chalk and silver nitrate salt was blackened by light.

He used stencils to produce black images with the paste. This reaction, the dawn of photography, was all thanks to the fact that silver salts are sensitive to light. A photon of light hitting the negative nitrate anion frees an electron, which ultimately combines with the positive silver ions to make neutral silver metal, darkening the surface of the material.

When inHenry Talbot discovered an additional chemical twist, that is so called latent silver image, that had been briefly exposed onto a layer of silver iodide could be revealed using gallic acid, the effect was seen as magical, a devilish art. But this mystical development of an invisible picture was a simple reduction reaction; the gallic acid helping to reduce photosensitized silver ions into silver metal.

Hollywood could never have existed without the chemical reaction that gave celluloid film its ability to capture the stars and bring them to the aptly dubbed silver screen.

Digital photography may now have eclipsed the silver image, but the metal's ability to conduct has given it an important role in the digital age.

Silver is used on circuit boards and in batteries, where the conduction speed is needed that copper for example, can't quite deliver.

A survey of the chemical element germanium

Even its most outdated properties are making resurgence. With new antibiotics running thin, a few researchers are returning to silver as a coating to keep the bugs at bay.

Silver metal is toxic to nasty bacteria, but not to us and there is even a tiny amount of it in our bodies, but that's yet to give up the secret of why it's there.periodic classification of the chemical elements and predicted three new members to occupy the gaps in the table as it then existed.

The final verification of his predictions occurred in , when Winkler the results that have been obtained in a survey of the germanium.

Germanium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ge and atomic number This is a lustrous, hard, silver-white, metalloid that is chemically similar to tin.

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb 2 S 3).Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl.

Metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously. Element Carbon (C), Group 14, Atomic Number 6, p-block, Mass Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images.

A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols and numbers. Germanium ores are rare. The least rare, germanite, is a copper-iron-germanium sulfide with 8% of the element, but even this is not mined.

Germanium is widely distributed in ores of other metals, such as zinc, and that which is required for manufacturing purposes is recovered as a by-product from the flue-dusts of zinc smelters.

World production is about 80 tonnes per year.

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