I do one article for Wired per year. My most recent published writings are listed herein chronological order. The book is also a bestseller in China, and I spend a lot of time visiting China to speak about the inevitable and to see what the Chinese have planned for our future. Despite two decades of fast moving technology, I would not change much in the book.
Chickens Dressed Like Napoleon, Einstein and Other Historical Figures Chicken is the ubiquitous food of our era, crossing multiple cultural boundaries with ease. With its mild taste and uniform texture, chicken presents an intriguingly blank canvas for the flavor palette of almost any cuisine.
A generation of Britons is coming of age in the belief that chicken tikka masala is the national dish, and the same thing is happening in China with Kentucky Fried Chicken.
Long after the time when most families had a few hens running around the yard that could be grabbed and turned into dinner, chicken remains a nostalgic, evocative dish for most Americans. It is all the more surprising in light of the belief by many archaeologists that chickens were first domesticated not for eating but for cockfighting.
Until the advent of large-scale industrial production in the 20th century, the economic and nutritional contribution of chickens was modest. Nonetheless, the chicken has inspired contributions to culture, art, cuisine, science and religion over the millennia.
Chickens were, and still are, a sacred animal in some cultures. The prodigious and ever-watchful hen was a worldwide symbol of nurturance and fertility.
Eggs hung in Egyptian Air asia marketing essay to ensure a bountiful river flood. The lusty rooster a. Chickens accompanied Roman armies, and their behavior was carefully observed before battle; a good appetite meant victory was likely.
According to the writings of Cicero, when one contingent of birds refused to eat before a sea battle in B. History records that he was defeated.
But one major religious tradition—ironically, the one that gave rise to matzo-ball soup and the Sunday chicken dinner—failed to imbue chickens with much religious significance.
The Old Testament passages concerning ritual sacrifice reveal a distinct preference on the part of Yahweh for red meat over poultry. This image, had it caught on, could have completely changed the course of Christian iconography, which has been dominated instead by depictions of the Good Shepherd.
The fact is that the male of the species can be quite a fierce animal, especially when bred and trained for fighting. Cockfighting is illegal in the United States—Louisiana was the last state to ban it, in —and generally viewed by Americans as inhumane. Artistic depictions of rooster combatants are scattered throughout the ancient world, such as in a first century A.
The ancient Greek city of Pergamum established a cockfighting amphitheater to teach valor to future generations of soldiers. The domesticated chicken has a genealogy as complicated as the Tudors, stretching back 7, to 10, years and involving, according to recent research, at least two wild progenitors and possibly more than one event of initial domestication.
The earliest fossil bones identified as possibly belonging to chickens appear in sites from northeastern China dating to around B. So if they really are chicken bones, they must have come from somewhere else, most likely Southeast Asia. The dun-colored females brood eggs and cluck just like barnyard chickens.
In its habitat, which stretches from northeastern India to the Philippines, G. This would later help endear the chicken to Africans, whose native guinea fowls had an annoying habit of flying off into the forest when the spirit moved them. Scientists have identified three closely related species that might have bred with the red junglefowl.
Precisely how much genetic material these other birds contributed to the DNA of domesticated chickens remains a matter of conjecture.
Recent research suggests that modern chickens inherited at least one trait, their yellow skin, from the gray junglefowl of southern India. Did a domesticated breed of G. Or were there two separate heartlands of domestication: Either scenario is possible, but probing more deeply into chicken origins is hindered by an inconclusive DNA trail.
The chicken was the first domesticated animal, the first bird—and consequently, the first descendant of the dinosaurs—thus honored. The genome map provided an excellent opportunity to study how millennia of domestication can alter a species.
The researchers found important mutations in a gene designated TBC1D1, which regulates glucose metabolism. Another mutation that resulted from selective breeding is in the TSHR thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene.
In wild animals this gene coordinates reproduction with day length, confining breeding to specific seasons. The mutation disabling this gene enables chickens to breed—and lay eggs—all year long. Once chickens were domesticated, cultural contacts, trade, migration and territorial conquest resulted in their introduction, and reintroduction, to different regions around the world over several thousand years.English will still dominate a century from now, but it will no longer share the planet with thousands of other languages.
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