Click to print Opens in new window Reforming the welfare system has been a key aim of British government since Richard Machin writes that the concept makes no economic sense, it does not produce the outcomes the government is seeking, all while the UK is actually spending less on welfare than countries with comparable economies. Back inthe coalition government stated that welfare reform is essential to make the benefit system more affordable and to reduce poverty, worklessness, and fraud.
Etymology[ edit ] The German term sozialstaat "social state" has been used since to describe state support programs devised by German sozialpolitiker "social politicians" and implemented as part of Bismarck's conservative reforms. The literal English equivalent "social state" did not catch on in Anglophone countries.
Members of Young England attempted to garner support among the privileged classes to assist the less fortunate and to recognize the dignity of labor that they imagined had characterized England during the Feudal Middle Ages.
Even though the country is often rated comparably economically free, Sweden's mixed economy remains heavily influenced by the legal framework and continual renegotiations of union contracts, a government-directed and municipality-administered system of social securityand a system of universal health care that is run by the more specialized and in theory more politically isolated county councils of Sweden.
The Italian term stato sociale "social state" and the Turkish term sosyal devlet reproduces the original German term. Spanish and many other languages employ an analogous term: In Portuguese, two similar phrases exist: Modern forms[ edit ] Modern welfare programs are chiefly distinguished from earlier forms of poverty relief by their universal, comprehensive character.
The institution of social insurance in Germany under Bismarck was an influential example. Some schemes were based largely in the development of autonomous, mutualist provision of benefits.
Others were founded on state provision. Marshall identified modern welfare states as a distinctive combination of democracywelfareand capitalismarguing that citizenship must encompass access to social, as well as to political and civil rights.
Since that time, the term welfare state applies only to states where social rights are accompanied by civil and political rights. Changed attitudes in reaction to the worldwide Great Depressionwhich brought unemployment and misery to millions, were instrumental in the move to the welfare state in many countries.
During the Great Depression, the welfare state was seen as a "middle way" between the extremes of communism on the left and unregulated laissez-faire capitalism on the right. The activities of present-day welfare states extend to the provision of both cash welfare benefits such as old-age pensions or unemployment benefits and in-kind welfare services such as health or childcare services.
Through these provisions, welfare states can affect the distribution of wellbeing and personal autonomy among their citizens, as well as influencing how their citizens consume and how they spend their time.
He envisioned his dharma religion or path as not just a collection of high-sounding phrases. He consciously tried to adopt it as a matter of state policy; he declared that "all men and my children" and "whatever exertion I make, I strive only to discharge debt that I owe to all living creatures.
Such missions were sent to places like Egypt, Greece, and Sri Lanka. The propagation of Dharma included many measures of people's welfare. Centers of the treatment of men and beasts founded inside and outside of empire.
Shady groves, wells, orchards and rest houses were laid out. Part of this group's duties was to see that people of various sects were treated fairly. They were especially asked to look after the welfare of prisoners.
This practice continued well into the Abbasid era of the Caliphate. The taxes including Zakat and Jizya collected in the treasury of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the needyincluding the poor, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled.
According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali Algazel, —the government was also expected to stockpile food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred.The introduction of the welfare state rested very largely on the work of two Liberal economists: John Maynard Keynes, who argued the virtues of full employment and state stimulation of the economy, and William Beveridge.
However, we can again rely on the analysis of Ha-Joon Chang who debunks the myth that the UK has a large welfare state.
Taking public social spending as a percentage of GDP, the UK is only slightly higher (% of GDP) than the OECD average (21%). But a welfare state, is not enough for today’s world. What we need is an entire system of welfare. The government is a necessary, but not sufficient provider of welfare.
The welfare state stands for the welfare of its citizens with welfare as its primary objective, the welfare state makes provisions for free medical service, public health and hygiene and preventive measures against epidemics.
In government, the challenge has been to act on this ambition and make changes to restore a creaking and chaotic welfare state into one which delivers on that vision for life change.
* A welfare state is a government that puts the interest of its citizens first. It is achievable through government programs that are instituted to provide benefits .