If we go too far back, say to the seventh century B. It was an area that could be covered on horseback in a day's ride. Macedon at first included the area immediately east of Lake Kastoria and east and north of the Haliakmon River.
Linguistic background[ edit ] While Demotic was the vernacular of the Greeks, Katharevousa was an archaic and formal variant that was pronounced like Modern Greek, but it adopted both lexical and morphological features of Ancient Greek that the spoken language had lost over time.
Strict Katharevousa used the ancient dative casemany participles and various additional tenses and conjugational patterns of verbs. Katharevousa contained various Ancient greece essay conclusion that did not fit the Modern Greek phonological system.
While the vernacular mostly consisted of simple sentences, katharevousa often applied ancient Greek syntax to form long and complex sentences, which would give the impression of educated speech. The proponents of the formal language discarded many popular Greek words that the Greek language had borrowed from other languages over time, mainly from TurkishLatin and Italianand replaced them either with ancient Greek words or with neologisms.
These differences meant that katharevousa was only partly intelligible to a Greek without higher education. There was no single Katharevousa. Instead, proponents of the formal language put forward ever-changing variants that were never standardized. These variants approached Attic Greek in extreme cases, but they could also be closer to spoken Greek and could be understood by the majority of the people.
Sample text[ edit ] The Greek language question concerns the co-existence of two, in extreme cases, completely different forms of Greek that greatly exceeds the usual stylistic difference between written and spoken language, as in the following text: Your work, which was submitted in manuscript to the Holy Synod under the title "Life of Jesus Christ", was sent by it [the Holy Synod] to Methodios, its President Archbishop of Syros, Tinos and Andros, so that he may report on whether the content of this work accords with the traditions of the Orthodox Church.
Historical development[ edit ] — Pre-revolutionary discussions[ edit ] The discussion began at the end of the 18th century, as Eugenios Voulgaris —Lambros PhotiadisSt.
Kommitas and Neophytos Doukaswho were proponents of a more archaic language, and Voulgaris's students Iosipos Moisiodax — and Dimitrios Katartzis ca. The phanariots were a group of conservative and educated nobles who supported the archaic language and were the most important critics of the language of the people.
This discussion later became crucial when it was to be decided which one should be the single language of the modern Ancient greece essay conclusion state, which was yet to be founded. Adamantios Korais — influenced the further discussion considerably. While being a supporter of the language of the people, Korais sought to cleanse it from elements that he considered to be too "vulgar" and eventually invented katharevousa.
After a prolonged War of Independencethe modern Greek state was founded in ; the first capital was Nafplio and, from onwards, Athens. What was perhaps intended to be a temporary stop-gap, however, eventually became firmly entrenched as the established form of Greek in official use.
It would also have been difficult to specify to a legal standard of precision exactly what was meant by ''katharevousa glossa" at the time, katharevousa was still an adjective.
In fact, the only mention of language in legislation appeared in the educational laws of andwhich established that Ancient Greek not katharevousa should continue to be the only language of the readers and textbooks used in schools.
There was also no official body to make such decisions: As a secular republican in language as well as in politics, he rejected this 'tyranny' and favoured an informal 'parliamentary' model; the poets and prose writers are the 'legislators', 'elected' by the size of their readership, and they have a duty to guide the language wisely by their majority opinion and their example.
Guidance is necessary, to avoid the 'mob rule' of undisciplined and uncorrected demotic, but ultimate authority still lies with the people, whose judgement over the long term decides which works and writers are 'elected' as the classics to be emulated.
Much of his writing on the language question was published in the prefaces to his volume Hellenic Library series of ancient Greek texts, and they were modestly titled "Impromptu thoughts on Greek culture and language".
Most of his other linguistic studies were issued as five collected volumes under the even more self-effacing title Atakta, a "jumbled miscellany". Two of his ideas in particular had widespread influence: As Korais had written, "To borrow from foreigners—or, to speak more clearly, to beg words and phrases, with which the storerooms of one's language are already replete—creates a reputation for complete ignorance or even idiocy as well as dishonour.
For example, the newly formed Royal Hellenic Navy introduced the use of Ancient Greek nautical terms although civilian seamen continued to use the traditional ones, many of them loanwords from Italian, owing to the centuries-old maritime influence of Venice and Genoa, and with borrowings from the Italian-based Mediterranean Lingua Franca of the Levantine ports.
Quite apart from its supposed inadequacy and vulgarity, there had been another political and diplomatic reason to rule out using demotic as the state language.
In the population of the new Greek state was about ,; but outside the borders were at least two million more Greek-speakers mainly in the Ionian Islands and the remaining provinces of the Ottoman Empireand millions more members of the Greek Orthodox Church who worshiped in Ancient Greek and shared much Greek culture even though they spoke AlbanianBulgarian or Aromanian at home.
At this early stage of the Greek state, it was far from clear how large its borders would ultimately be and whether citizenship would depend on language, religion, or simple residence. Both believed wholeheartedly in the power of the written language to transform the spoken one; they hoped that the 'pure' forms would naturally trickle down to replace the 'corrupted' demotic ones and that the spoken language would thus be pulled up to a 'richer' and 'nobler' level.
There was also a moral and spiritual side to linguistic 'correction'. Korais had believed, "Because of their enslavement to foreign rulers, the Modern Greeks were incapable of thinking properly and thus of speaking properly; the correction of language would, however, lead to the correction of both thought and behaviour.
In he published the first dictionary of spoken demotic to be compiled by a Greek for almost two centuries: Here, the definitions and explanations were all given in Ancient Greek and French, used as precision instruments to dissect "grocers' style" demotic, which was treated more as an object of study than a medium of communication.
Vyzantios concluded his dictionary with a list of words of foreign origin many of them Turkish that were to be expelled from demotic as part of its 'purification'.
In his preface [b] he argued that "it would be ridiculous to express scholarly and scientific ideas in 'grocers' style'; for this reason, in order to be written down, our spoken language must be corrected according to that of our ancient forebears: After all, demotic speakers had been exposed to Ancient Greek in church and school for centuries without any noticeable trickle down; the languages had simply grown too far apart for any such diffusion to be possible.
It was hoped now that katharevousa would be close enough to demotic for its 'purifying' influence to work.🤘 Starting at 8$🤘 Unbeatable Value 🤘24H Delivery 🤘 Writers Active. Try our fast essay writing service. With us you can save from 30% in most cases. The Socrates (aka metin2sell.com) and Berkeley Scholars web hosting services have been retired as of January 5th, If the site you're looking for does not appear in the list below, you may also be able to find the materials by.
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The difference between the ancient Greek society and our life today is a lot less significant than you would have expected. For a start our multiple modern religions, some of which are very similar to the Ancient Greek religion.