Bassanio asks Antonio to help him secure the funds he needs to woo Portia, a wealthy heiress. The Jewish moneylender Shylock, with whom Antonio shares a mutual animosity, agrees to lend Antonio the money. Read extended character analysis of Antonio. A young nobleman of Venice, Bassanio admits to living beyond his means.
Shalah is the grandson of Shem and the father of Eberbiblical progenitor of Hebrew peoples. All the names of Jewish characters in the play derive from minor figures listed in genealogies in the Book of Genesis.
It is possible that Shakespeare originally intended the name to be pronounced with a short "i", as rather than a long one. The modern pronunciation has changed because the standard spelling with a "y" signifies to readers a long 'i' pronunciation. The Shylocks of sixteenth-century London included "goldsmiths, mercers, and, most visibly of all, scriveners",  according to prominent scholar Stephen Orgel, a Stanford professor who serves with A.
Braunmuller as general editor of The Pelican Shakespeare series from Penguin. Gordon Clark mentions another possibility.
At the time, the prefix shy- meant "of questionable character, disreputable, shady" as in the modern shysterwhile shy-cock was slang for "a wary or cowardly person. The venture, however, entirely failed, and in January he had to petition the Privy Council for relief and assistance.
In June he was again petitioning the Privy Council, from the Fleet Prisoncondemned at the suit of William Borough to pay for a ship bought for Frobisher's last voyage, though he claimed the debt was not his; he was also bound for a larger debt of the Cathay Company.
In —15 he was still being sued for a debt for stores supplied to Frobisher's ships. Calling an untrustworthy businessman "shy Lok" would be an easily understood reference to Elizabethans. When a bankrupt Antonio defaults on the loan, Shylock demands the pound of flesh.
This decision is fuelled by his sense of revenge, for Antonio had previously insulted, physically assaulted and spat on him in the Rialto stock exchange of Venice dozens of times, defiled the "sacred" Jewish religion and had also inflicted massive financial losses on him.
Meanwhile, Shylock's daughter, Jessica, falls in love with Antonio's friend Lorenzo and converts to Christianity, leaves Shylock's house and steals vast riches from him, which add to Shylock's rage and harden his resolve for revenge.
In the end — due to the efforts of Antonio's well-wisher, Portia — Shylock is charged with attempted murder of a Christian, carrying a possible death penalty, and Antonio is freed without punishment.
Shylock is then ordered to surrender half of his wealth and property to the state and the other half to Antonio.
However, as an act of "mercy", Antonio modifies the verdict, asking Shylock to hand over only one-half of his wealth — to him Antonio for his own as well as Lorenzo's need — provided that he keeps two promises. First, Shylock has to sign an agreement bequeathing all his remaining property to Lorenzo and Jessica, which is to become effective after his demise, and second, he is to immediately convert to Christianity.
Shylock is forced to agree to these terms, and he exits citing illness. Historical background In Shakespeare's time, no Jews had been legally present in England for several hundred years since the Edict of Expulsion in However, stereotypes of Jews as money lenders remained from the Middle Ages.
Historically, money lending had been a fairly common occupation among Jews, in part because Christians were not permitted to practise usurythen considered to mean charging interest of any kind on loans, and Jews were excluded from other fields of work.
Hyam Maccoby argues that the play is based on medieval morality playsexemplumin which the Virgin Mary here represented by Portia argues for the forgiveness of human souls, as against the implacable accusations of the Devil Shylock.
Kean's Shylock established his reputation as an actor.
Edwin Booth was a notable exception, playing him as a simple villain, although his father Junius Brutus Booth had portrayed the character sympathetically.
Henry Irving 's portrayal of an aristocratic, proud Shylock first seen at the Lyceum inwith Portia played by Ellen Terry has been called "the summit of his career". Adler's Shylock evolved over the years he played the role, first as a stock Shakespearean villain, then as a man whose better nature was overcome by a desire for revenge, and finally as a man who operated not from revenge but from pride.
In a interview with Theater magazine, Adler pointed out that Shylock is a wealthy man, "rich enough to forgo the interest on three thousand ducats" and that Antonio is "far from the chivalrous gentleman he is made to appear. He has insulted the Jew and spat on him, yet he comes with hypocritical politeness to borrow money of him.
For instance, in the film adaptation directed by Michael Radford and starring Al Pacino as Shylock, the film begins with text and a montage of how the Jewish community is abused by the Christian population of the city.
One of the last shots of the film also highlights that, as a convert, Shylock would have been cast out of the Jewish community in Venice, no longer allowed to live in the ghetto. But he would likely not have been fully accepted by the Christians, as they would remember his Jewish birth.
Another interpretation of Shylock and a vision of how "must he be acted" appears at the conclusion of the autobiography of Alexander Granacha noted Jewish stage and film actor in Weimar Germany and later in Hollywood and on Broadway.
All of the marriages that ended The Merchant of Venice are unhappy, Antonio is an obsessive bore reminiscing about his escape from death, but Shylock, freed from religious prejudice, is richer than before and a close friend and confidante of the Doge.
Arnold Wesker 's play The Merchant is a reimagening of Shakespeare's story. Davies is portrayed both in and out of character, presenting and stripping down the layers between character and actor.
Composed in one minute act, it premiered at Bard on the Beach on 5 Augustwhere it was directed by John Juliani and starred popular Canadian radio host, David Berner.
It has since been produced at theatres, Shakespeare Festivals and Fringes throughout Canada and the US including the San Diego Repertory Theatre where it was staged opposite a controversial production of The Merchant of Venicewas translated for a production in Denmark and has been staged twice by the original actor, Berner, in Venice.
Notable portrayals Italian-French film. In addition, Stewart developed a one-man show Shylock: Shakespeare's Alien and produced it while acting in the role in and Al Pacino acted as Shylock in a feature film version as well as in Central Park in Nov 29, · The character of Shylock in 'The Merchant of Venice' by Michael Burger.
Share your thoughts Complete your review. Tell readers what you thought by rating and reviewing this book. Rate it . Shylock is a Jewish moneylender, father to Jessica, enemy to Antonio, and one of the most complex characters of The Merchant of Venice—and arguably of all of Shakespeare's works.
Over the years, theater and film productions of the play have portrayed Shylock in various ways. Learn merchant venice 3 shakespeare with free interactive flashcards.
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Custom paper Academic Service metin2sell.com Biological research methods; A summary of transactional analysis; Essays on child abuse. Shylock is the most vivid and memorable character in The Merchant of Venice, and he is one of Shakespeare's greatest dramatic creations. On stage, it is Shylock who makes the play, and almost all of the great actors of the English and Continental stage have attempted the role.
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