For example, an essay might examine how high school is like -- and not like -- college or how the causes of World War I and II were different and similar. Examine the Assignment The thesis establishes the main point of the essay. Does the assignment ask you to compare, contrast or both?
A Comparison of L1 and L2 Reading: Cultural Differences and Schema Meena Singhal http: Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both first and second languages.
This paper will examine how reading in the L1 is different from and similar to reading in the L2.
More specifically, factors of cultural differences: Based on such a discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader is provided.
Introduction The ability to read is acknowledged to be the most stable and durable of the second language modalities Bernhardt, In other words, learners may use their productive skills, yet still be able to comprehend texts with some degree of proficiency.
Reading, whether in a first or second language context, involves the reader, the text, and the interaction between the reader and text Rumelhart, Although reading in the L1 shares numerous important basic elements with reading in a second or foreign language, the processes also differ greatly.
Despite these interests, second language research on reading, is frequently dismissed as being marginal and derivative from first language reading.
Reading in a second language, for example, was often viewed as merely a slower version of doing the same task in the native language. While it is true that the L1 and L2 reading process have similarities, it is also important to recognize that many factors come into play, which in turn make second language reading a phenomenon unto itself.
Despite the similarities between reading in an L1 and reading in an L2, a number of complex variables make the process of L1 different from L2. Because the reading process is essentially "unobservable" teachers need to make significant efforts in the classroom to understand their students' reading behaviors and be able to help students understand those behaviors as well.
It is therefore important that teachers know as much as possible about the cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds of their readers since many of these factors that influence reading in an L2 context.
While the research in this domain encompasses a great deal of literature which cannot possibly be covered in its entirety here, it is hoped that this discussion will nonetheless provide readers with an overview in this area. Types of Schema Before proceeding any further, the notion of schema must be defined.
Schemas, or schema as they are sometimes known, have been described as "cognitive constructs which allow for the organization of information in long-term memory Widdowson, Cook states, "the mind, stimulated by key words or phrases in the text or by the context, activates a knowledge schema" Cook,p.
This covers the knowledge of the world, from everyday knowledge to very specialized knowledge, knowledge of language structures, and knowledge of texts and forms they take in terms of genre, and organization. In addition to allowing us to organize information and knowledge economically, schemas also allow us to predict the continuation of both spoken and written discourse.
The first part of a text activates a schema, that is, calls up a schema which is either confirmed or disconfirmed by what follows. Research on the theory of schema has had a great impact on understanding reading. Researchers have identified several types of schemata. Formal schema, often known as textual schema, refers to the organizational forms and rhetorical structures of written texts.
Schooling and culture play the largest role in providing one with a knowledge base of formal schemata.
While formal schemata cover discourse level items, linguistic or language schemata include the decoding features needed to recognize words and how they fit together in a sentence. First language readers, may through repeated examples, be able to generalize a pattern or guess the meaning of a word, which may not have initially been part of their linguistic schema.
The building of linguistic schema in a second language can proceed in the much the same way. From the above discussion it is evident that schema plays an important role in text comprehension, both in the L1 and L2 context.
For example, whether reading in a first or second language, one can assume that both native and non-native readers will understand more of a text when they are familiar with content, formal, and linguistic schema. An L2 reader, however, who does not possess such knowledge can experience schema interference, or lack of comprehension- ideas which are examined further in the following discussion pertaining to relevant research in this area.
This study involved 28 Muslim Arabs and 24 Catholic Hispanic ESL students of high-intermediate proficiency enrolled in an intensive English program at a midwestern university.
Each student read two texts, one with Muslim-oriented content and the other with Catholic-oriented content. Each text was presented in either a well-organized rhetorical format or an unfamiliar, altered rhetorical format. After reading each text, the subjects answered a series of multiple-choice comprehension questions and were asked to recall the text in writing.
Analysis of the recall protocols and scores on the comprehension questions suggested that schemata affected the ESL readers' comprehension and recall.The Christ myth theory (also known as the Jesus myth theory, Jesus mythicism, or Jesus ahistoricity theory) is "the view that the person known as Jesus of Nazareth had no historical existence." Alternatively, in terms given by Bart Ehrman as per his criticism of mythicism, "the historical Jesus did not exist.
Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity.". Compare and Contrast. A compare and contrast essay is a type of writing in which you explain the similarities and differences between two things.
Compare-Contrast Essay Thesis & Topic Sentence Examples - authorSTREAM Presentation.
Transition. Word or phrase that shows relationship between ideas. Usually used at the start of a sentence. The Compare and Contrast Thesis Statement: Prework If you’re going to write a strong thesis, you’ll want to make sure you know your approach before going in.
Here are some pro tips to help you get started. Vocabulary and spelling series Transitional Words & Phrases. Using transitional words and phrases helps papers read more smoothly, and at the same time allows the reader to flow more smoothly from one point to the next.