The Engineering Management program focuses on problems, design, and management of projects and complex operations. You will learn technical and leadership skills required to meet future industry needs. The program is grounded in solid principles of systems science while exploiting the tools of management science and project management. The Master of Engineering Management emphasizes the concept of technological leadership.
Polymerase chain reaction is a powerful tool used in molecular cloning Creating a GMO is a multi-step process.
Genetic engineers must first choose what gene they wish to insert into the organism. This is driven by what the aim is for the resultant organism and is built on earlier research. Genetic screens can be carried out to determine potential genes and further tests then used to identify the best candidates.
The development of microarraystranscriptomics and genome sequencing has made it much easier to find suitable genes. Molecular cloning The next step is to isolate the candidate gene. The cell containing the gene is opened and the DNA is purified. If the DNA sequence is known, but no copies of the gene are available, it can also be artificially synthesised.
The plasmid is replicated when the bacteria divide, ensuring unlimited copies of the gene are available. These include a promoter and terminator region, which initiate and end transcription. A selectable marker gene is added, which in most cases confers antibiotic resistanceso researchers can easily determine which cells have been successfully transformed.
The gene can also be modified at this stage for better expression or effectiveness. These manipulations are carried out using recombinant DNA techniques, such as restriction digestsligations and molecular cloning. Gene delivery A gene gun uses biolistics to insert DNA into plant tissue There are a number of techniques available for inserting the gene into the host genome.
Some bacteria can naturally take up foreign DNA. This ability can be induced in other bacteria via stress e. Due to the damage caused to the cells and DNA the transformation efficiency of biolistics and electroporation is lower than agrobacterial transformation and microinjection.
In plants this is accomplished through the use of tissue c ulture. Selectable markers are used to easily differentiate transformed from untransformed cells. These markers are usually present in the transgenic organism, although a number of strategies have been developed that can remove the selectable marker from the mature transgenic plant.
The presence of the gene does not guarantee it will be expressed at appropriate levels in the target tissue so methods that look for and measure the gene products RNA and protein are also used.
The technique of gene targeting uses homologous recombination to make desired changes to a specific endogenous gene.
This tends to occur at a relatively low frequency in plants and animals and generally requires the use of selectable markers. The frequency of gene targeting can be greatly enhanced through genome editing.
There are four families of engineered nucleases: Bacteriathe first organisms to be genetically modified, can have plasmid DNA inserted containing new genes that code for medicines or enzymes that process food and other substrates. The genetically modified animals include animals with genes knocked outincreased susceptibility to diseasehormones for extra growth and the ability to express proteins in their milk.Jobs after Masters in Engineering Management After completing the MEM degree, the candidate can be hired as an Application Engineer, Associate Marketing Manager, Automation Engineer, Business Analyst, Client Services Analyst, Clinical Specialist, D Director of Business Strategy etc.
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