Vroom developed the theory from his study on the motivation behind decision-making.
The expectancy theory of motivation is traditionally a management principle, but it also has many applications outside of the workplace. For example, if you can better understand the expectancy theory, you can not only motivate those around you, but you can better understand your personal expectations in an attempt to self-motivate.
In this article, we discuss how the expectancy theory works, including how to use the theory to your advantage. How the Expectancy Theory of Motivation Works Practitioners of the expectancy theory of motivation believe that the expectations of a person directly relates to their level of motivation.
This means that motivation can increase or decrease based on three factors: Essentially, valence describes how bad someone wants something.
The higher the valence, the higher the motivation. Your level of expectancy is affected by things like skills, resources, information, as well as perceived future growth.
The higher the expectancy, the higher the motivation. As you can see, all three of these factors are based on your expectations.
First, you expect a specific outcome or goal to be rewarding once you achieve it. Second, you expect that if you put forth effort in pursuit of that goal or outcome, your relative level of performance will increase.
Third, your increased performance should result in the achievement of your ultimate desire. Therefore, the expectancy theory of motivation is typically used to describe the following three relationships: If you can maximize all three of these relationship types by pulling one of the three levers above valence, expectancy, instrumentalityyou can increase motivation, both for yourself as well as those around you.
How to Calculate Motivation Using the Expectancy Theory The three inputs above that affect the expectancy theory of motivation create two thresholds that must be positive in order for you to remain motivated.
First, you must believe that there is a high probability that your efforts will lead to your desired level of performance. Second, you must also believe that there is a high probability that your performance will lead to your desired outcomes.
You can depict these thresholds using the following: Conversely, if one or both of these thresholds are not met due to negative valence, expectancy, and instrumentalitythen your motivational force will either be low or negative.
You can depict your motivation using the following formula: Be honest with yourself — is your life-path really the one you want to be on? Assuming you have a goal that gets you excited, the next thing to do is devise a plan that results in increased performance over time.
This will definitely help you achieve increased levels of performance as a result of your effort. Finally, if the fruits of your labor result in your desired outcome, great! This means you have high instrumentality. If yes, then you might just have to persevere.
Rather, go back to the drawing board and adjust your plan.The expectancy theory of motivation is a principle that says your motivation is directly tied to your expectations that your hard work will result in the goal you want. Learn more about how to use this theory to your advantage.
Expectancy Theory Overview. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is best described as a process theory. With research pioneered by Edward C. Tolman and continued by Victor H. Vroom, Expectancy Theory provides an explanation of why individuals choose one behavioral option over others.
Thus, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory has its roots in the cognitive concept, i.e. how an individual processes the different elements of motivation. This theory is built around the concept of valence, instrumentality, and Expectancy and, therefore, is often called as VIE theory.
Jun 30, · Expectancy theory may be confused with, or linked to, extrinsic motivation, because in both cases, employees engage in actions and behavior to produce a desirable outcome. The expectancy theory of motivation is a principle that says your motivation is directly tied to your expectations that your hard work will result in the goal you want.
Learn more about how to use this theory to your advantage. The Expectancy Theory as explained by Vroom was brought about to explain and separate effort (arising from motivation), outcomes and metin2sell.com is because other theories i.e.
by Maslow and Herzberg only explain the relationship between needs and the required effort to fulfill them.