By Michael Eisen Published: February 20, The soul of academic science is being destroyed, one patent at a time. There are a dizzying number of patents involved in this dispute, and many more players staking claims to what has the potential to be billions of dollars in royalties down the road.
This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors.
It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes. These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
Recht und Macht in Verfahren gegen Hexen — Zugleich eine Untersuchung zur Entstehung des Inquisitionsprozesses This article examines the reasons, which led to the development and the ending of witch trials in the Holy Roman Empire.
First of all, the essay explains the procedural reasons for the introduction of the inquisition procedure and its effects on the prosecution of heretics in the Holy Roman Empire. Subsequently, the development from the ancient offence of damage magic maleficium to the early modern offence of witchcraft is presented.
In particular, the reasons are given for the transformation of the maleficium into an element of witchcraft. However, the Carolina, the pertinent criminal and criminal procedural law of the Holy Roman Empire stuck to the maleficium. Nonetheless, the codification of the offence of witchcraft in the Electoral Saxon Constitutions led to the decisive paradigm shift in favour of the offence of witchcraft.
Accordingly, the procedure of witch trails is outlined, whereby the focus is on the demarcation of the processus ordinarius and the processus extraordinarius. Furthermore, this essay explains under which circumstances witch trails were excessive and unlawful.
In this context the processus extraordinarius is decidedly examined.
In the last section of this article, the possibilities to obtain legal protection against illegal procedural acts in witch trails are discussed. Moreover, this article emphasizes that the High Courts of Holy Roman Empire regularly decided in favour of the accused in witch trails.
At the same time, the essay shows that the High Courts of the Holy Roman Empire respected the Carolina and contributed significantly to the containment of witch trials.
Keywords Hexenprozesse; Hexenlehre; Constitutio Criminalis Carolina; processus ordinarius; processus extraordinarius; crimen exceptum; crimen magiae; maleficium; Reichskammergericht; Reichshofrat Kamila Staudigl-Ciechowicz: From on anti-Semitic tendencies at the universities were getting stronger, in spring Jewish as well as political opponent scholars and students were forced to leave the Austrian universities due to national socialistic ideology.
The paper shows the expulsions from a legal point of view, stressing the significance of the laws that where enacted between — by the austrofacist government.
University of Vienna; racially- and politically-motivated expulsions, Anti-Semitism, faculty of law and state. How the judges dispensed justice against several ethnical groups? In the end you could see an of course nationalistsocialist court, but not a highly political and not always unfair one.
Raluca Enescu, Leonie Benker: The Birth of Criminalistics and the Transition from Lay to Expert Witnesses in German Courts The European judicial setting underwent profound changes with the shift from testimonial to material evidence at the end of the 19th century.
Expert witnesses possessing specialist knowledge entered the courtroom, throwing shadow on lay witnesses who suddenly were considered unreliable.
This evidential mutation arose from the emergence of specialist knowledge delivered by expert witnesses. New laws were required and judgments were passed in order to clarify the respective competency of experts and judges.
Three guideline judgments of the Imperial Court of Justice involving experts are discussed and put in parallel with the principle of free evaluation of evidence as well as with wrongful convictions. Keywords Judicial decision-making; expert witnesses; lay witnesses; Imperial Court of Justice; history of forensic science; free evaluation of evidence; wrongful convictions.
Russian Law Faculty in Prague — The article is devoted to the little-known page of Russian post-revolutionary emigration - the creation and functioning for about fifteen years of the law faculty, founded by Russian professors of the law faculties of tsarist Russia who emigrated after the October Revolution ofwith the support of the government of Czechoslovakia.
On teachers’ salaries, at least, the NCES data is data for WAGES only, not total compensation. Given their civil service protections, automatic, seniority based promotions, extremely generous benefits and pensions, a picture of flatlining wages is inaccurate. The private payer plans consist of Preferred Provider Organization (PPO), Consumer-Driven Health Plan (CDHP), Staff Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), Indemnity Plans, Point-of-Service Plan (POS), Group HMO, and Independent Practice Association (IPA). Features of Private Payer and Consumer-Driven Health Plans. Paper instructions: Write a +word response to familiarize yourself with private .
The article shows the main aspects of the activities of the Russian Law Faculty in Prague: Prague; revolution; emigration; law faculty; legal science; law students.A HMO is accredited by the state.
For its more abject costs, the HMO has the most rigorous guidelines and the minutest alternative of suppliers.
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News Corp is a network of leading companies in the worlds of diversified media, news, education, and information services. Features of Private Payer and Consumer-Driven Health Plans. Paper instructions: Write a +word response to familiarize yourself with private .
Write a to word response to familiarize yourself with private payer plans and CDHP account types. Briefly list three to five main features for the following nine items.
Below each list, provide one or two sentences stating coverage of services and financial responsibility.