The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most fundamental of all the hypotheses in Krashen's theory and the most widely known among linguists and language practitioners.
Possessive 's The girl's book. Order of acquisition In the s, several studies investigated the order in which learners acquired different grammatical structures.
Furthermore, it showed that the order was the same for adults and children, and that it did not even change if the learner had language lessons. This supported the idea that there were factors other than language transfer involved in learning Language acquisiton languages, and was a strong confirmation of the concept of interlanguage.
However, the studies did not find that the orders were exactly the same. Although there were remarkable similarities in the order in which all learners learned second-language grammar, there were still some differences among individuals and among learners with different first languages.
It is also difficult to tell when exactly a grammatical structure has been learned, as learners may use structures correctly in some situations but not in others.
Thus it is more accurate to speak of sequences of acquisition, in which specific grammatical features in a language are acquired before or after certain others but the overall order of acquisition is less rigid.
For example, if neither feature B nor feature D can be acquired until feature A has been acquired and if feature C cannot be acquired until feature B has been acquired but if the acquisition of feature D does not require the possession of feature B or, therefore, of feature Cthen both acquisition order A, B, C, D and acquisition order A, D, B, C are possible.
Variability[ edit ] Although second-language acquisition proceeds in discrete sequences, it does not progress from one step of a sequence to the next in an orderly fashion. There can be considerable variability in features of learners' interlanguage while progressing from one stage to the next.
However, most variation is systemic variation, variation that depends on the context of utterances the learner makes.
Language transfer One important difference between first-language acquisition and second-language acquisition is that the process of second-language acquisition is influenced by languages that the learner already knows.
This influence is known as language transfer. If this happens, the acquisition of more complicated language forms may be delayed in favor of simpler language forms that resemble those of the language the learner is familiar with.
Stephen Krashen took a very strong position on the importance of input, asserting that comprehensible input is all that is necessary for second-language acquisition. Further evidence for input comes from studies on reading: One tenet of Krashen's theory is that input should not be grammatically sequenced.
He claims that such sequencing, as found in language classrooms where lessons involve practicing a "structure of the day", is not necessary, and may even be harmful. For example, students enrolled in French- language immersion programs in Canada still produced non-native-like grammar when they spoke, even though they had years of meaning-focused lessons and their listening skills were statistically native-level.
According to Long's interaction hypothesis the conditions for acquisition are especially good when interacting in the second language; specifically, conditions are good when a breakdown in communication occurs and learners must negotiate for meaning.
The modifications to speech arising from interactions like this help make input more comprehensible, provide feedback to the learner, and push learners to modify their speech. This area of research is based in the more general area of cognitive scienceand uses many concepts and models used in more general cognitive theories of learning.
As such, cognitive theories view second-language acquisition as a special case of more general learning mechanisms in the brain. This puts them in direct contrast with linguistic theories, which posit that language acquisition uses a unique process different from other types of learning.
In the first stage, learners retain certain features of the language input in short-term memory. This retained input is known as intake.
Then, learners convert some of this intake into second-language knowledge, which is stored in long-term memory.
Finally, learners use this second-language knowledge to produce spoken output. In the early days of second-language acquisition research on interlanguage was seen as the basic representation of second-language knowledge; however, more recent research has taken a number of different approaches in characterizing the mental representation of language knowledge.
Micro-processes include attention;  working memory;  integration and restructuring.Read recent studies pertaining to language acquisition in infants and children.
Figure summarizes the five stages of language acquisition and shows some appropriate prompts and sample questions to use for each stage of second language acquisition.
By knowing the stages of language acquisition and stage-appropriate questions, you can engage students at . The Office of English Language Acquisition's mission is to identify issues effecting the Education of English language learners, and to assist and support State and local systemic reform efforts that emphasize high academic standards and school accountability.
There are several theories on language acquisition. During our first years of life, the human brain develops rapidly. Many things take place as we learn to speak and understand language.
Anyone at any age can learn a second language after a first language is already established, but it takes a lot of practice. Second language acquisition often happens when a child who speaks a language other than English goes to school for the first time.
Second-language acquisition assumes knowledge in a first language and encompasses the process an individual goes through as he or she learns the elements of a new language, such as vocabulary, phonological components, grammatical structures, and writing systems.