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Ancestry[ edit ] Pushkin's father, Sergei Lvovich Pushkin —was descended from a distinguished family of the Russian nobility that traced its ancestry back to the 12th century. Pushkin — father of the poet Ossip Abramovich Gannibal's father, Pushkin's great-grandfather, was Abram Petrovich Gannibal —an African page kidnapped to Constantinople as a gift to the Ottoman Sultan and later transferred to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. Largely on the basis of a mythical biography by Gannibal's son-in-law Rotkirkh, some historians concluded from this that Gannibal was born in a part of what was then the Abyssinian Empirelocated today in Eritrea. Nadezhda Gannibalova — mother of the poet Pushkin exam at lyceum Early life[ edit ] Born in Moscow, Pushkin published his first poem at

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What are the Major Effects of Light on Animals? The Major Effects of Light on Animals are as follows: The growth, colouration of plumage or body, migration, reproduction and diapause are affected by light in various insects, birds, fishes, reptiles and mammals. Many animals prefer to remain in dark, while others like hydroids fail to survive in absence of light.

While the plants respond to light with the help of several pigment systems as chlorophyll and phytochrome, among the animals various kinds of photo-receptor systems exist. Light has also been found to influence the development of these visual organs Tobias Bathymicrops Regis, the deep sea fish metre sea depth have no eyes.

Some of the other important effects of light on animals are following: Effects of Light on Animals 1. Effect of light on protoplasm: Though the bodies of most animals remain protected by some sort of body covering which save animal tissues from the lethal effects of solar radiations.

Ultraviolet rays are known to cause mutational changes in the DNA of various organisms. Effect of light on metabolism: The increased intensity of light results in an increase in enzyme activity, general metabolic rate and solubility of salts and minerals in the protoplasm.

Effect of light on pigmentation: Cave animals lack skin pigments.

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If they are kept out of darkness for a long time, they regain skin pigmentation. The darkly pigmented skin of human inhabitants of the tropics also indicate the effect of sunlight on skin pigmentation. Light also determines the characteristic patterns of pigments of different animals which serve the animals in sexual dimorphism and protective colouration.

Effect of light on animal movements: The influence of light on the movement of animals is evident in lower animals.

Alexander Pushkin - Wikipedia

Oriented locomotory movements towards and away from a source of light is called phototaxis. Positively phototactic animals such as Euglena, Ranatra, etc. The light directed growth mechanisms are called phototropisms which occur in sessile animals.

The velocity or speed of the movement of certain animals is also regulated by light. Photokinesis may be a change in linear velocity rheokinesis or in the direction of turning klinokinesis. During photokinesis when only a part of the body of an animal deviates always from the source of light, the reaction is termed photoklinokinesls.

Larvae of Musca domestic show such movements. When animals are confronted with two lights of equal brightness they move towards or away to a position that is distance between the two lights. This is termed phototropotaxis. Attraction of males towards the flesh of the female is called telotaxis.

Some organisms, particularly arthropods, birds and fish, utilize their time sense as an aid to find their way from one area to another. To orient themselves, the animals use the sun, moon, or stars as a compass. To do this, they utilize both their biological clock and observations on the azimuthal position of the sun in relation to an established direction.

The target angle changes throughout the day. But animals which use the sun as a reference, correct their orientation somehow.

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Such celestial orientation has been observed in fishes, turtles, lizards, most birds, and such invertebrates as ants, bees, wolf spiders and sand hoppers. Photoperiodism and biological clocks: Regularly occurring daily cycles of Light day; and darkness night have been known to exert a profound influence on the behaviour and metabolism of many organisms.

Underlying such environmental rhythms of light and darkness are the movements of the earth relative to the sun and the moon. The response of different organisms to environmental rhythms of light and darkness is termed photoperiodism. Each daily cycle inclusive of a period of illumination followed by a period of darkness is called the photo- period.

The term photophase and scatophase are sometimes used to denote the period of light and the period of darkness respectively. Life evolved under the influence of daily and seasonal environmental changes, so it is natural that plants and animals would have some rhythms or pattern to their lives that would synchronize them with fluctuations in the environment.

For years biologists have been intrigued over the means by which organisms kept their activities in rhythm with the 24 hours day, including such phenomena as the daily pattern of leaf and petal movement in plants, the sleep and wakefulness of animals and the emergence of insects from pupal cases Fig.Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (English: / ˈ p ʊ ʃ k ɪ n /; Russian: Александр Сергеевич Пушкин, tr.

Aleksándr Sergéyevich Púshkin, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn] (listen); 6 June [O.S.

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26 May] – 10 February [O.S. 29 January] ) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic era who is considered by . Read reviews, watch trailers and clips, find showtimes, view celebrity photos and more on MSN Movies. Even if the bank could not find a bona fide buyer, it was supposed to write down the property to fair market value on the books and take the loss on its financial statements.

BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. The Savings and Loan Scandal and Public Accounting. By Wade Frazier. Originally published June 19, , updated in November A Brief Economic History. Latest environmental news, features and updates.

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What are the Major Effects of Light on Animals? (7 Effects)