Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Paper Of Autism Essay Sample Autism is a broad-ranged developmental disorder that is perceptible by the inability to socialize, speak and recognize things and people. It has been estimated that 7 to 13 individuals in every 10, people suffer from autism. The precise etiology of autism still remains to be uncovered, yet there is a growing list of anecdotal reports that demonstrate that genetic factors may largely influence that pathogenesis of this developmental disorder.
Etiology of autism spectrum disorders: Genes, environment, or both? Abstract Introduction Thus far, most of the research on both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders has been focused on finding the presumed underlying genetic causes, while much less emphasis has been put on potential environmental factors.
While some forms of autism are clearly genetic, the fact remains that heritability factors cannot adequately explain all reported cases nor their drastic increase over the last few decades.
Because the prenatal environment and early postnatal environment are shared between twins and because overt symptoms of autism emerge around the end of the first year of life, it is likely that at least some of the environmental factors contributing to the risk of autism exert their deleterious neurodevelopmental effect during this early period of life.
Indeed, evidence has now emerged showing that autism may in part result from early-life immune insults induced by environmental xenobiotics. One of the most common xenobiotic with immuno-stimulating as well as neurotoxic properties to which infants under two years of age are routinely exposed worldwide is the aluminum Al vaccine adjuvant.
Because of the tight connection between the development of the immune and the central nervous system, the possibility that immune-overstimulation in early infancy via vaccinations may play a role in neurobehavioural disorders needs to be carefully considered.
Conclusion There is now sufficient evidence from both human and animal studies showing that cumulative exposure to aluminium adjuvants is not as benign as previously assumed.
Given that vaccines are the only medical intervention that we attempt to deliver to every living human on earth and that by far the largest target population for vaccination are healthy children, a better appreciation and understanding of vaccine adjuvant risks appears warranted.
Introduction The etiologies proposed for the spectrum of neurological disorders falling under the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders ASD shows the same range as those proposed for the well-known neurological disorders associated with aging.
The widespread, but incorrect, view regarding all of these diseases is that most cases arise from genetic mutations or polymorphisms.
Moreover, an apparent increase in both prevalence and incidence of these disorders over a relatively short time span i. In ALS, for example, much of the literature of the last 20 years has focused sequentially on the search for genetic etiologies leading to motor neuron loss and the list of defective genes has grown larger over this time period.
Thus the literature seems clear that the bulk of neurological disorders arise due to environmental factors, most still not identified reviewed in[ 1 ].
None of this diminishes the putative role of susceptibility genes, also mostly unknown, whose interactions with the various environmental toxicants are highly likely to be crucially involved. Keeping with this, experimentally it has proven possible to develop toxin-based animal models of ALS in outbred mice with no gene mutations and thus model the much higher fraction of ALS which is sporadic[ 1 ].
In spite of these observations, the dominance of a genetic causality perspective for the above disorders remains relative firmly in place. There is insufficient space in the present review to go into the various scientific and sociological reasons why this may be so see[ 1 ]but it is important to recognize that much the same perspective dominates the ASD field, a perspective that is likely to be as fundamentally incorrect as it is for ALS and the other age-related neurological disorders.
The increase in ASD began after the early s. Prior to this, the prevalence of autism was relatively low and relatively stable [ 1213 ]. In to the U. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.
In the United Kingdom, current reported autism prevalence is 1 in 64 children per 10, [ 16 ]. Consistent with this, in a recent analysis comparing the prevalence of autism with that of other disabilities among successive birth cohorts of U. With the above as a general introduction, the present article will attempt to address the issue of ASD etiology, putting into perspective the likely roles of genes versus environment in the disorder and the interactions between the two.
Discussion The authors have referenced some of their own studies in this review. These referenced studies have been conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the protocols of these studies have been approved by the relevant ethics committees related to the institution in which they were performed.
All human subjects, in these referenced studies, gave informed consent to participate in these studies. Animal care was also in accordance with the institution guidelines. Autism features and central nervous system CNS abnormalities Autism and related disorders of the autism spectrum i.
Co-morbid behavioural and psychiatric conditions associated with the core symptoms include aggression, disruption, hyperactivity, self-injury, sensory abnormalities, anxiety, depression and sleeping disturbances.
The most frequent non-neurological co-morbidities associated with ASD are gastrointestinal abnormalities and underlying inflammation[ 22232425262728 ], feeding difficulties and food sensitivities[ 29 ].NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE Ed Friedlander, M.D., Pathologist [email protected] No texting or chat messages, please.
Ordinary e . Until the s, schizophrenia and autism perceived and examined in the same category. After that, autism started to be seen as a disorder with distinctive characteristics, separating from other behavioral and emotional impairments (Danaher, ).
Sources of Autism Books. A small selection of places you can find some of these books.
Note that I have not completely scanned these sites so . Evidence for an environmental etiology in autism Extensive research has underscored the tight connection between development of the immune system and that of the CNS, thus substantiating the notion that disruption of critical events in immune development may play a role in neurobehavioral disorders including those of the autism spectrum [ For much of his adult life, Charles Darwin's health was repeatedly compromised by an uncommon combination of symptoms, leaving him severely debilitated for long periods of metin2sell.comr, in some ways this may have helped his work, and Charles Darwin wrote "Even ill-health, though it has annihilated several years of my life, has saved me from .
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