Early life[ edit ] Alexander II as a boy.
It seemed to the new tsar, Alexander II reigned —81that the dangers to public order of… Life The future Tsar Alexander II was the eldest son of the grand duke Nikolay Pavlovich who, inbecame the emperor Nicholas I and his wife, Alexandra Fyodorovna who, before her marriage to the Grand Duke and baptism into the Orthodox Churchhad been the princess Charlotte of Prussia.
Alexander succeeded to the throne at age 36, following the death of his father in Februaryat the height of the Crimean War. Alexander II, detail of a portrait by an unknown artist, 19th century; in the collection of Mrs.
Merriweather Post, Hillwood, Washington, D. Courtesy of Hillwood, Washington, D. Among the earliest concerns of the new emperor once peace had been concluded in Paris in the spring of on terms considered harsh by the Russian public was the improvement of communications.
Russia at this time had only one railway line of significance, that linking the two capitals of St. In Russia, as elsewhere, railway construction, in its turn, meant a general quickening of economic life in a hitherto predominantly feudal agricultural society.
Joint-stock companies developed, as did banking and credit institutions. The same effect was achieved by another measure of modernization, the abolition of serfdom.
In the face of bitter opposition from landowning interests, Alexander II, overcoming his natural indolence, took an active personal part in the arduous legislative labours that on Febuary 19,culminated in the Emancipation Act.
By means of a long-drawn-out redemption operation, moreover, they were also endowed with modest allotments of land. Although for a variety of reasons the reform failed in its ultimate object of creating an economically viable class of peasant proprietors, its psychological impact was immense.
The most crying abuses of the old judicial system were remedied by the judicial statute of Russia, for the first time, was given a judicial system that in important respects could stand comparison with those of Western countries in fact, in many particulars it followed that of France.
Local government in its turn was remodeled by the statute ofsetting up elective local assemblies known as zemstvo s. Their gradual introduction extended the area of self-government, improved local welfare education, hygiene, medical care, local crafts, agronomyand brought the first rays of enlightenment to the benighted Russian villages.
Before long zemstvo village schools powerfully supported the spread of rural literacy. Meanwhile, Dmitry Milyutinan enlightened minister of war, was carrying out an extensive series of reforms affecting nearly every branch of the Russian military organization.
The educative role of military service was underlined by a marked improvement of military schools. The army statute of introduced conscription for the first time, making young men of all classes liable to military service.
Alexander II, 19th-century coloured woodcut. Their aim and results were the reduction of class privilege, humanitarian progress, and economic development. The personally tolerant emperor had removed or mitigated the heavy disabilities weighing on religious minorities, particularly Jews and sectarians.
Restrictions on foreign travel had been lifted. Barbarous medieval punishments were abolished. The severity of Russian rule in Poland was relaxed.
Yet, notwithstanding these measures, it would be wrong, as is sometimes done, to describe Alexander II as a liberal.
Practical experience only strengthened these convictions. Thus, the relaxation of Russian rule in Poland led to patriotic street demonstrations, attempted assassinations, and, finally, into a national uprising that was only suppressed with some difficulty—and under threat of Western intervention on behalf of the Poles.
The government, afterhad reacted increasingly with repressive police measures. A climax was reached in the spring ofwhen Dmitry Karakozova young revolutionary, attempted to kill the emperor. Alexander—who bore himself gallantly in the face of great danger—escaped almost by a miracle.
The attempt, however, left its mark by completing his conversion to conservatism. His sense of guilt, moreover, made him vulnerable to the pressures of the Pan-Slav nationalists, who used the ailing and bigoted empress as their advocate when in Serbia became involved in war with the Ottoman Empire.
Although decidedly a man of peace, Alexander became the reluctant champion of the oppressed Slav peoples and in finally declared war on Turkey. Following initial setbacks, Russian arms eventually triumphed, and, early inthe vanguard of the Russian armies stood encamped on the shores of the Sea of Marmara.the Russian Empire under Tsar Alexander II embarked on major liberal reforms.
For Congress Poland this meant political amnesty, conciliatory measures in cultural and religious matters, and the creation of the Agricultural Society to tackle the peasant question. Great Reforms of Alexander II. Updated on September 24, Rebecca Graf. This great reform took quite a while to grow as it began to only take into account the areas that were completely Russian.
The zemstvos were limited in power and began leaning heavily toward the gentry. Nicholas V. and Mark D. Steinberg. A History of Russia. New. Coming to the throne in in the middle of the conflict, Alexander II was unable to save Russia from military failure, but the humiliation convinced him that, if his nation was to have stability and peace at home and be honoured abroad, military and domestic reforms were vitally necessary.
Q6: Compare the reform measures of Czars Alexander II and Nicholas II with respect to their contents and effects.
Russia had undergone tremendous changes during the 19th century and from to , two Russian Czars Alexander II and Nicholas II had totally two different methods of dealing with the problems in Russia.
We will write a custom essay sample on Did Alexander II deserve the title Tsar Liberator? specifically for you for only $ $/page. The reform measures of Czars Alexander II and Nicholas II ; Did Alexander II deserve the .
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How did czars Alexander III and Nicholas II deal with calls for reform?
They resisted all efforts for reform. In which country did Nationalists lead a successful rebellion against its sultan and then reform the government with.