This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.
The Supression of the English monasteries From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century. The King sought to abolish the entire monastic system in order to add to the royal coffers and to break down opposition to royal supremacy.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries which term includes abbeys and conventscovers the four years between Apr and Apr In Aprthere were over monasteries, abbeys, nunneries and friaries that were home to over 10, monks, nuns, friars and canons.
By April there were none left. Much of the property was bought by or granted to landowners; monastery churches were sometimes converted to parish churches, while some buildings, such as Tintern Abbey, were left to ruin.
Monastic life is bound by ascetical practices expressed typically in the vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience, called the evangelical counsels.
Monasticism is traditionally of two kinds: The Reformation saw the sudden end of monasticism in the Protestant countries of Europe. The Rule of Saint Benedict c. By the 12th Century, many people felt the Benedictines no longer followed the Rule of Saint Benedict, becoming lax in their prayers and work and so the Cistercian order was founded.
The Cistercian's favoured solitude and so built their monasteries in the middle of moors and mountain valleys. The Augustinian order was also founded at around this time, and they were dedicated to evangelism, teaching and working with the poor and sick, and so lived near towns and castles.
In the 13th Century, orders of Friars were founded and they depended upon the charity of the people they ministered to. Monasticism is a form of religious life, usually conducted in a community under a common rule. Although individual monks took a vow of poverty, monasteries were usually very wealthy because rich barons gave them land and endowments.
They used their resources to help the sick and the poor. Some monasteries had hospitals and all had sick bays for monks who fell ill. Monks often experimented with herbs and plants which they made into medicines.
The primary function and responsibility of religious orders was to maintain a daily cycle of prayer, praying together eight times a day between midnight and 7.
The monks and nuns would live in spartan conditions in individual cells. They led humble lives, devoting themselves to the worship of God and to the care of the sick and poor. They would copy out books and manuscripts; often acted as teachers to boys from local families; baptised the local children; and occassionally farmed the land or tending sheep.
The rules and regulations of the monastery were set by the prior and chapter, the head of the monastery and his chosen council.
Such matters were discussed at special meetings within the splendidly decorated Chapter House. The monks were given job titles for their day to day activities: Scribes copied out maunscripts; Librarians cared for the books, the Sacrist looked after the monastery's church, the job of the Almoner was to feed and cloth his fellow monks and to look after the ill and poor who turned up at the gates, while the Hosteller cared for any guests that stayed within the monastery itself.
With life in England during the Medieval and Tudor periods extremely hard for many, the numbers of poor and ill people in the towns and villages was large. The life of a monk was mainly devoted to prayer. For each day the monks would stop whatever they were doing at certain hours, or 'offices', to attend church for prayers.
There were 8 offices per day, with the first beginning very early in the morning. This first office was called Vigils and occured at 2am. In Medieval and Tudor England there were no hotels and very few inns, most of which were too expensive for travellers and the poor to stay in.
The monastery offered these poor people a few nights stay for free within their rooms, while the monastery infirmary was used as a hospital for sick people from the towns as well as for poorly monks.
One other visitor to the monastery was the pilgrim. These pilgrims would travel around country visiting sites of religious relics, called shrines. There were many reasons for their journey; to honour God, as a good luck sign before a battle or enterprise, as a penance for bad deeds, or to cure themselves from illness.
In order for the pilgrims to prove that they had in fact made the journey and visited the shrine, the monks gave out badges to be pinned on caps or jackets as proof.
The 14th Century was another period of monastic decline, with little new building and few people willing to become a religious. The Black Death compounded the problem and by the end of the Century most of the great monastic houses were half empty, although the cycle of prayer was maintained.
In the County of Norfolk, out of priests died of the plague; and William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, applied for and obtained from Pope Clement VII, a bull allowing him to dispense with sixty clerks, who were only twenty-one years of age, 'though only shavelings', and to allow them to hold rectories, as one thousand livings had been rendered vacant by death, as otherwise service would cease altogether.
Here we see the beginning of future troubles as unqualified people were given positions of responsibility. By now many of the large houses had become very wealthy, thanks to the wool trade of the Middle Ages and many senior monks found themselves having to devote their time to earthly business matters instead of to God.
As they became more wealthy and owned more land, they found themselves obliged to serve the Crown and thus oversaw issues of drainage, food stocks etc.The closing down of monasteries was not new. Cardinal Wolsey shut down a number of religious houses years before the attack by Cromwell and Henry.
He had done this with the full blessing of the Pope as some of the religious houses in England had ‘decayed’ – . The monasteries were merely collateral damage in the power play between Henry and the Pope 56 Bernard, “The Dissolution of the Monasteries,” Garvin 12 Selected Bibliography Bernard, G.
W. In this essay I will be outlining the key points in why the First World War broke out in 19 Many people tend to say "Because Archduke Ferdinand got shot." Still others have blamed it on the increased independence and Imperialism in Hungary to Russia’s growing military.
But he also shut down the monestaries and was instrumental in the persecuting the monks and nuns who lived there, sometimes causing their death, certainly stopping their livlihood.
It was his idea to turn to these monestaries for the wealth they could bring, regardless . Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem. Credits: 1 Recommended: 9th Test Prep: AP World History This is a broad, survey course; you will need to do additional study to take.
Henry did his best to make it appear that he was using the law to shut down these establishments. Many times this was accomplished by tricking the monks into breaking their vows or stating the monks were not doing their duty to the community.